Coram Deo

The Vulgate, also called Biblia Vulgata, or the Latin Vulgate, is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible, done by St. Jerome. St. Jerome, also known as Jerome of Stridon, was an early Christian priest, confessor, theologian, translator, and historian. He was born in 347 AD and died in 419/420 at Bethlehem, Palestine.


Pope Damasus I (Damasus of Rome, reign, from October 366 to December 11, 384) commissioned Saint Jerome to produce a standard Latin translation of the Bible. There were many different Latin versions of the Bible at that time. But Pope Damasus I wanted the church to have a standard version to promote universal doctrine.


St. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin between A.D. 383 and 404. He translated the gospels from Greek. He also corrected or revised some of the existing translations. He translated the Old Testament from Hebrew. In 406, he completed his translation of the Bible into Latin. Jerome’s Latin Bible is known as the Vulgate because he used the common, or vulgar, language of early mediaeval times.


The Latin phrase “Coram Deo” appears in Psalm 55:13 of the Vulgate. The verse is found in Psalm 56:13 in modern English translations.

Covenant theology

The past, present, and future events in the redemptive history of humans are a progressive story of God’s covenants with humans. Covenants found both in the Old Testament and New Testament unlock the meaning and significance of the death of Christ. The person and work of Christ were the fulfilment of all Biblical covenants. Jesus expounded his death in covenantal terms and fulfillments. His blood inaugurated the New Covenant. Without his bloodshed, there would have been no New Covenant.

Characteristics of covenant theology

1.     Covenant Theology is also called federal theology. The Latin word “foedus” means covenant. Covenant theology is not a systematic set of doctrines. In that sense, it is not a theology. It is a framework for biblical interpretation. Covenant theology brings together all covenants in the scripture, into a coherent account. It explains the significance of the scriptural covenants in redemptive history.

2.     Covenant theology explains the relationship between God and humanity in terms of divinely initiated covenants. It explains almost all themes and issues related to human redemptive history. Covenants expound on unity and progress, as well as the temporary discontinuity in the process of fulfilling the promise. It reveals the final fulfilment of redemption and salvation.

Jesus and Nicodemus - John 3:1-21

The Gospel According to John is the fourth gospel narrative in the New Testament. The authorship is ascribed to St. John, the disciple of Jesus, but it is often disputed. The teachings and testimonies of John are evident in the gospel. The date and place of composition of the gospel are also not certain. It might have been written at Ephesus in Asia Minor about 90-100 AD.


Though no audience is mentioned in the gospel, John might have in mind Christians of Hellenistic background. Readers include both Jewish and Gentile Christians living in a Greco-Roman world. For his Greek readers, John frequently explains Jewish customs and Palestinian geography. The mention of "logos" is a reference to the Greek philosophical concept about the ultimate reality, which is God. At the same time, John’s Jesus is the Jewish Messiah, the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies. The seven "I AM" statements have direct relation to Exodus 3:14.

What are the "other gods"?

Before starting this study on "What are the other gods?", we should understand three invariable universal spiritual principles.


The first one is that truth is one, eternal, and unchanging. That means there is only one truth. It does not have more than one explanation. The truth is always unadulterated. It is always perfect and complete and does not change according to any circumstances. The truth is always the truth. Truth is truth in this world, in the other world, and in the world to come. So, no one can explain or illustrate the truth in different ways. The truth is never personal or subjective. It is always objective. It is the same everywhere and for everyone.


The second principle is the fact that the only written book to understand God is the Bible. The primary intention of the Bible is not to explain to us who God is. God is a spiritual personality who is inexplicable. The Bible is a record of human history, predestined by God. It is not the story of God. The beginning or end of God is not narrated in the Bible. All the thoughts, intentions, words, and actions of God are not recorded in the Bible. The Bible is all about humans.

Hell: five questions and answers

1.    Why has God created hell?


The Bible makes it clear that God is an omnibenevolent Being as well as a righteous judge. God is not "all good" and He is not "only good". His nature also includes justice.


In his conversation with God concerning the impending judgement of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abraham pleaded for the righteous nature of God.


Genesis 18:25 "Far be it from You to do such a thing as this, to slay the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous should be as the wicked; far be it from You! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" (NKJV)


David also spoke about the righteousness of God in his Psalms.


Psalm 9:8 He shall judge the world in righteousness, And He shall administer judgment for the peoples in uprightness. (NKJV)


To execute His justice, God created a separate realm for those who violate His laws. This realm is hell.