What are the "other gods"?

Before starting this study on "What are the other gods?", we should understand three invariable universal spiritual principles.


The first one is that truth is one, eternal, and unchanging. That means there is only one truth. It does not have more than one explanation. The truth is always unadulterated. It is always perfect and complete and does not change according to any circumstances. The truth is always the truth. Truth is truth in this world, in the other world, and in the world to come. So, no one can explain or illustrate the truth in different ways. The truth is never personal or subjective. It is always objective. It is the same everywhere and for everyone.


The second principle is the fact that the only written book to understand God is the Bible. The primary intention of the Bible is not to explain to us who God is. God is a spiritual personality who is inexplicable. The Bible is a record of human history, predestined by God. It is not the story of God. The beginning or end of God is not narrated in the Bible. All the thoughts, intentions, words, and actions of God are not recorded in the Bible. The Bible is all about humans.

Hell: five questions and answers

1.    Why has God created hell?


The Bible makes it clear that God is an omnibenevolent Being as well as a righteous judge. God is not "all good" and He is not "only good". His nature also includes justice.


In his conversation with God concerning the impending judgement of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abraham pleaded for the righteous nature of God.


Genesis 18:25 "Far be it from You to do such a thing as this, to slay the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous should be as the wicked; far be it from You! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" (NKJV)


David also spoke about the righteousness of God in his Psalms.


Psalm 9:8 He shall judge the world in righteousness, And He shall administer judgment for the peoples in uprightness. (NKJV)


To execute His justice, God created a separate realm for those who violate His laws. This realm is hell.

Hell: annihilation or eternal punishment



There are different theories among Christian theologians about the period of punishment in hell. Some people believe hell is a kind of purgatory that cleanses people of their sins before they go to heaven. Others align with annihilationism, in which, after a period, the souls in hell perish into nonexistence. The traditionalists believe that those who are in hell experience torment for eternity.


The annihilationists and the traditionalists differ about the immortality of the human soul. Annihilationists do not believe in the immortality of unrighteous humans. So, they believe that the souls of the impenitent sinners will cease to exist in the lake of fire, or that they will be annihilated forever.


Traditionally, Christians believe that all people, whether saved or lost, will exist eternally because the human soul is immortal. The soul is spiritual and thus has the quality of immortality. And so, the souls of the wicked will suffer in hell eternally.

Is hell real?

As I was typing this sentence to prepare this study, "While the damned endure hell endlessly, believers enjoy the endless perfection of Christ forever", MS Word gave me a warning, "This language may be offensive to your reader". And I fear that they are right about it. Though hell is just as real as heaven, all those who believe in the existence of heaven do not believe in the existence of hell. But the Bible clearly and explicitly teaches that hell is a real place to where the unbelieving wicked are sent after the final judgement.


In theology, the doctrine of hell relates to personal eschatology. Eschatology is about the end-times as described in the Old Testament as well as the New Testament. The Book of Daniel, some parts of Isiah, Ezekiel, Zachariah, and Revelation are considered eschatological writings. They describe in prophetic language the end of the world and human beings.

Is the Old Testament God cruel?

 (All Bible verses used in this study is taken from New King James Version, if not mentioned otherwise)


Is the God of the Bible cruel, brutal, and even evil? Though this question is against the God revealed both in the Old Testament and the New Testament, critics cite incidents in the Old Testament more often than the New. This short study attempts to present some arguments in defence of the Biblical God.


Before we delve into the topic, we should understand some facts about the Bible. The Bible is not a book dictated by God or handed over to humans directly or through angels. Bible is a collection of 66 books, written by 40 human authors. The authors of all books are not known to us today. They lived in three continents and wrote in three different languages, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek (common Greek). It was compiled (completed the canon of Scripture) over the span of 1500 years.

Asbury Revival 2023

Asbury University is a small Christian private university, affiliated with the Wesleyan-Holiness movement. John Wesley is the founder of the Methodist Church. The Holiness movement emerged chiefly within 19th-century Methodism. The Asbury University is situated in Wilmore, Kentucky, USA. A regular Wednesday worship service, conducted in the University chapel continued for nearly two weeks. This is known as the Asbury Revival 2023.

The revival has captured the attention of all Christians in USA and other nations. In Christianity, the term “spiritual revival” means a powerful move of the Holy Spirit among the people. It is a thirst for God and His presence. Revival is a reconnection with the divine after a period of spiritual drought. The result is purification of souls and empowerment of people to live a holy life. Revival always promotes evangelical movements and church planting.

The Problem of evil

 Defining evil


Evil is “a term used to describe something that brings about harmful, painful, and unpleasant effects” (https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/evil). All “harmful, painful, and unpleasant effects” are simply not good. So throughout this study, evil is defined as force or action opposed to good.


Human beings from the ancient time are puzzled by the existence of evil in this world. Humans will always struggle with the problem of evil. We were trying to live good, propagate good, punish evil and eradicate evil. But still evil exists and is increasing in proportion. The Religious sects, political ideologies and World Wars have unleashed the horror of evil on innocent humans. In spite of all human efforts to eliminate or at least weaken the horrors of evil, various atrocities and horrors, such as genocides, terrorist attacks, tortures and mass murders continue to happen in this world.